One Finite Planet

EV Recharging Reference: Faster Than Recharging Fossil Fuels, But It’s Not Refuelling. (2nd Edition).

Table of Contents

This page is a reference for recharging electric vehicles, both now and in the future. Refuelling EVs, as discussed elsewhere, provides a more familiar experience, but recharging comes with its own perhaps surprising benefits, plus, it costs less.

Infrastructure to allow refuelling EVs is growing, but with EVs, recharging most likely remain more popular, the understanding and right preparation for recharging is advised well before getting an EV in order to fully benefit.

Summary: (TL;DR).

While a little USA centric, this covers most key points.

Most of this page is all about the background to the following key points, and while much explanation is required to full get why, the key points are:

  • Most people, for all but around the 2 weeks per year of ‘road trips’, will ideally only need to charge at home.
  • Home charging is the least expensive, and most convenient option, and for most people, only requires access to a regular mains power socket.
  • Road trip charging, does not match ‘refuelling’, which for EVs is battery swapping, but recharging :
    • is, although slower, less expensive than refuelling
    • is likely to become more widely available as less infrastructure is required
    • can even save time if ‘recharging’ the family/driver is done while charging
    • but…there are many details to getting it right with today’s EVs.

Key Concepts Of Charge For Electric Vehicles (EVs)

You Can Refuel An EV Instead Of Recharge, And It Is Faster, But Do You Want To?

Refuelling is replacing the previous and now “spent” fuel, with new fuel in a charged state, and this for an EV, is battery swapping. Just put in a new battery so the fuel supply is just like it was before the old battery was discharged.

Recharging is adding energy to restore the “spent” fuel, back to its initial state. With fossil fuels, this requires huge areas of land to grow the plants that get the CO2 back from the air, and eventually use the energy from sunlight create oil underground from the same chemicals as are in car exhaust. But with batteries, we keep the “exhaust” inside the battery and can recharge in just hours, and amazingly, even do a fast recharge in just minutes!

In fact you can refuel some EVs, as battery swapping, previously championed but later rejected by Tesla, may be making a comeback. But with EVs, recharging is possible, and on most occasions, can provide a much better experience than the refuelling we are familiar with, even if there are situations where that more familiar, and faster, refuelling experience, may still be the best option. EVs enable a choice, and even if you feel refuelling (battery swapping) is how you would like to replace charge, it still makes sense to understand the alternative that most people prefer most of the time.

When asked about battery-swapping technology, Volkswagen spokesperson Mark Gillies told Car and Driver, Our data indicates that only 3 to 5 percent of all EV drivers use fast charging as an option to get juice in their battery.” In other words, most people are still charging at home at night for their daily driving.

Car and Driver: Aug 2020

Teslas were at one time all designed to accommodate battery swapping, but it was just not popular, as stated by Elon Musk:

It’s just, people don’t care about pack swap. The Superchargers are fast enough that if you’re driving from LA to San Francisco, and you start a trip at 9AM, by the time you get to, say, noon, you want to stop, and you want to stretch your legs, hit the restroom, grab a bite to eat, grab a coffee, and be on your way, and by that time, the car is charged and ready to go, and it’s free. So, it’s like, why would you do the pack swap? It doesn’t make much sense.

The Verge, 2015: Tesla sounds ready to pull the plug on promised battery-swap technology

‘Supercharging’ is no longer free for most people, but it logically will always be less expensive than battery swapping.

In China, people are using battery charging, but there are a lot of people. Different demographic, different time, different housing and driving patterns, but most of all, a far larger sample of people in China drive EVs today than drove EVs in California in 2015. Taking VWs data of 3% to 5% of people using fast charging as the target market, then for one brand of EV in the Chinese market to have enough customers for the service does not mean it will find enough customers everywhere.

The entire focus of battery swapping is mainly for road trips, and for when charging at home is not possible.

Even those who make use of battery swapping (refuelling), normally recharge their battery at home or work when not on a road trip, and almost always prefer the lower cost and greater convenience of recharging when not on a “road trip”.

So battery swapping exists and may become more available, but is something to use some of the time, because if you own an EV, you are almost certainly going to find recharging more convenient and less expensive almost all the time.

Fuel Requires A Supply Chain, But Charge (Energy) Is Everywhere.

A first, it seems recharging is the equivalent to refuelling fossil fuels, but on reflection it is battery swapping swapping that is the equivalent to refuelling fossil fuels, as this replacing spent fuel with new fuel. Recharging is not practical with fossil fuels, partly because the ‘spent’ fuel or exhaust isn’t captured, but also because restoring it back to its original state is really slow.

Being able to recharge the fuel means you do not need new ingredients, only energy. Ok, you could call energy an ingredient, but as it is not a substance, which makes it fundamentally different. You can get it in very different ways, can even make it yourself, and do not need to got to a specific type of provider to purchase it. There is no need to mine it somewhere, and no single source of supply. Energy is ubiquitous. Every country can make energy. Today, not only is the electric grid connected to almost every home and office, but as those homes not connected to the grid still receive solar energy, they still have access to energy, and can have electricity.

While refilling a fossil fuel tank, or battery swapping an electric car, requires a visit to as special “fuel station” (or swap station), you do not need to go to a special place to get energy or charge, as it is continually delivered homes offices and anywhere people live. Even places not connected to the grid receive solar energy.

While the best range per day obtainable from solar power with a car today is around 64 kms (40 miles), which fortunately is within the distance most people drive on average per day. Note, that is the range gained from the sun each day, but the Aptera can store 20 days of energy from sunshine, allowing a drive 1,600km (1,00 miles) in a single day once charged. The point is that even in the event of an apocalypse, every one with a solar blanket can still drive their electric car, even only a limited distance each day.

Many problems can disrupt the supply of fossil fuel, but the very nature of the electric grid means long term disruption of electrical supply to a wide area is far less likely, and there are even off the grid solutions.

Rethink Step: A reverse Perspective.

We need to think more like mobile phone recharging than like traditional refuelling, which is quite an adjustment.

One way to picture how different an owning an electric vehicles would be is to consider what it would belike coming from an electric vehicle to an internal combustion car.

An EV owner has provide an answer in an insightful article looking from the other side. What would be required as a rethink for a person accustom to electric vehicles, replacing their an electric vehicle with a gasoline/petrol vehicle?

  1. I have heard that petrol cars can not refuel at home while you sleep? How often do you have to refill elsewhere? Is this several times a year? Will there be a solution for refuelling at home?
  2. Which parts will I need service on and how often? The car salesman mentioned a box with gears in it. What is this and will I receive a warning with an indicator when I need to change gear?
  3. Can I accelerate and brake with one pedal as I do today with my electric car?
  4. Do I get fuel back when I slow down or drive downhill? I assume so, but need to ask to be sure.
  5. The car I test drove seemed to have a delay from the time I pressed the accelerator pedal until it began to accelerate. Is that normal in petrol cars?
  6. We currently pay about 1.2p per mile to drive our electric car. I have heard that petrol can cost up to 10 times as much so I reckon we will lose some money in the beginning. We drive about 20,000 miles a year. Let’s hope more people will start using petrol so prices go down.
  7. Is it true that petrol is flammable? Should I empty the tank and store the petrol somewhere else while the car is in the garage?
  8. Is there an automatic system to prevent gasoline from catching fire or exploding in an accident. What does this cost?
  9. I understand that the main ingredient in petrol is oil. Is it true that the extraction and refining of oil causes environmental problems as well as conflicts and major wars that over the last 100 years have cost millions of lives? Is there a solution to these problems?

For this page, #1 is the most relevant, and conveys the important concept that “recharging while sleeping” is the normal, and going to a charging station should be an exception that only happens a few times a year.

Like With Your Phone, Normal Life Means Recharging While Sleeping.

Charging while sleeping, the ideal for an electric vehicle, will normally mean that overnight, vehicle is recharged enough replace whatever charge was used during the day, or at least ensuring more than sufficient charge for the entire next day. For most of us, this is just like what happens with a mobile phone.

Normally, the car battery will only need a top up each night, not a full charge, as how often do you use a full tank of fuel in a day? Generally, only when on a road trip.

While there are many reasons for only wanting a refuel stop around once a week, there is little reason not to plus in after parking every night if it is possible.

For those where plugging in at night is not possible, EV ownership is way less satisfying.

Of course, just as some phones just don’t last all day if you watch lots of videos or some other battery intensive activity and could need an emergency top-up. Same with electric vehicles. While all early vehicles had terrible range, now even the least expensive EVs that sell for around US$5,000 in China can get at least 250km (150 miles). Given a normal person averages less than 60km per day (See charging systems reference), a range of even 250km should provide for even quite unusual days. Most days cars are used just for local transport, but for a road trip or for an ’emergency’ when the driver just didn’t get to recharge as they should, rapid charging at charging stations will be the solution until in road wireless charging is available.

Rapid Charge At Charging Stations: Emergency Charging and Road Trips.

Many people focus almost entirely on rapid charging before buying an electric car, but with the exception of those who drive all day during their employment, almost everyone then almost never uses rapid charging. Perhaps with exception of car reviewers, who often do have employment that results in often spending most of the day driving.

Just as you need to consider how you will charge your phone on a trip, you need a different arrangement when on a trip with your car. Now if you were watching videos all day on your phone on your trip, you may need to charge your phone more than once a day, and if you are going to be doing far more driving than normal on your trip, you will need to charge your car one a day. For both phone and car “rapid charging” become important.

Use of rapid charging should be very rare, unless a person either:

  • Has an unsuitable car.
  • Road test cars as an occupation, or has other commercial use.
  • Has free access to rapid charging, or doesn’t have the ability to charge at home.

A car needing rapid charge, is in some ways like a person who did not get enough sleep last night, and as a result needs a ‘catnap’ to get through the day. Either the day is unusually tiring, or the person is not getting enough sleep. Frequent use of rapid or emergency charging creates problems because:

  • Rapid chargers are additional infrastructure that comes at a cost, increasing the cost of electricity.
  • Using a rapid charger frequently will reduce battery life.

For lowest running costs, best battery life, and the best experience from an EV, almost all charging should be at home and rapid chargers only used in exceptional circumstances.

Forget Full Recharge Time, Range Added Per Hour or Per Minute is what matters.

A bigger battery will take longer to fully recharge, but typically less time to charge for a given distance. While all early EVs had so little range it made little sense to do anything but a full rechange, which is why “full recharge time” was at one time useful information. Now there are vehicles like the Lucid Air with 800km range and vehicles such the Aptera being released with even up to 1,600km range. Of course there are still vehicles with very little range as well, but it makes no sense to compare time from empty to full of a vehicle with 1,600km of range to that recharge time of a vehicle with just over 100km of range.

While with ICE vehicles, it usually makes sense to use most of the fuel in the tank, and then ‘fill the tank’, this is not the normal pattern for every day use of an EV.

The normal ‘charge while sleeping‘ will, most days, only need to replace less than the typical 100km (60 miles) of range that was travelled that day. Even on a road trip, when using ‘rapid’ charging, you need enough charge to comfortably get to your next charge. Using latest technology that can charge 200km (120 miles) in 5 minutes, 10 minutes charge should usually be more than enough, and you would only fully charge if it is convenient at that time. Picture yourself, 100km from you destination and needing sufficient charge to complete your journey. Would you think “I have a large battery that provides 800km range, so I must fill it and I wish I had a smaller battery that only provides 300km range!”.

What does matter, is how long it takes to add range. This can be stated as ‘range per hour’ for slow charging, because when ‘charging while sleeping’, it is easier to think in hours, but for rapid charging, it is better to think in ‘minutes per 100 km’. In practice, there are two measures:

Only how long to add range matters, not %
  • Range per night or per hour, for ‘charging while sleeping’.
  • Range per minute, for the emergency high speed ‘rapid charging’.

Consider which would you rather have?

  1. A car with a small battery and a range of only 100km (60 miles), that fully charges in just 20 minutes, but have low range.
  2. A car with a large battery and a range of 800km that fully charges in 30 minutes, but will travel 400km from 10 or even 15 minutes of charging.

Surely option 2 is the better car to have, even though a full charge does take longer. As battery capacities continue to increase, the time for a full charge from ’empty’ to ‘full’ will become relevant even less often. What really matters, is how much range can be added in a given period of time, or how long will be needed to add the range required.

EVs Redefine ‘Road Trip Ready’.

There are two experiences of using a car to get people from a to b:

The links provide further explanation but think fetching groceries from the local supermarket as clearly a local trip, and a weekend getaway is usually clearly a road trip. Often the lines get can be blurred. What about a rare visit to a special farmers market 3 hours away? Or a weekend getaway in a location just 2 hours away? But generally it is common to have this idea of some trips that requiring more from the vehicle that others.

The difference between the trip can be so different that a vehicle can need different preparation, and some vehicles are only suitable for ‘local’ trips. A vehicle can be still suitable for ‘local trips’, even though some of following limit use for ‘road trips’:

  • I wouldn’t want to be driving that on the highway.
  • The tyres should be checked or replaced before the car goes on a road trip.
  • A service is due soon, so should happen before the road trip!

How the vehicle is driven changes between local trips and road trips, but with an internal combustion vehicle, the refuelling process stays exactly the same, even if the other things done when refuelling change.

With an EV, local trips charging is mostly from a home charger using an AC only cable, and could even come from solar power, and takes place at leisure, either overnight, or while parked for extended periods. But with an EV, road trips require the use of a charging network, use DC rapid charging, often costs more due to the need to pay the charging network, and can even involve forward planning to organise optimal pricing.

The very first electric cars were totally unsuitable for road trips. There are still some EVs that are unsuitable.

A trip requiring recharging while on the trip becomes clearly a ‘road trip’ that is different in nature from local trips.

Wireless Charging: The Next Step?

Wireless Charging At Home: Still rare, but becoming available now.

Having to plug in each night when you park may not take long, and if we can remember to charge our phones, it may not seem to much of a burden, but just imagine if as you a pulling up, the car automatically guides itself to the right position to recharge. This is new, but the it is already down as an option with Hyundai Genesis EV60 and the BMW530e. As the WiTricity wireless charging follows an open standard, and is said to be as efficient as a cable, wireless charging could take over. VW aims to wirelessly charge a Porsche Taycan to 80% in 10 minutes.

Wireless Charging On The Move: In Early Trials.

Like the technology used by our smart devices, the system needs vehicle-mounted receivers to work. According to the company, this is something that has not been implemented yet as a factory feature by any renowned carmaker but can be easy and cost-effective to add on existing and future EV models.

In terms of logistics, the only inconvenience is that a portion of the asphalt needs to be removed and replaced. Other than that, the system can connect to existing power grids without the need for additional infrastructure or transformation stations. It uses management units placed on the sides of the road to communicate with the receivers on the vehicles and transfer energy.

ElectReon is involved in multiple pilot programs to test the feasibility of this technology. Recently, the company has completed the deployment of its dynamic wireless charging system on a 1.65-km (1.02-mile) public road in Gotland, Sweden.

Sweden Successfully Tests Wireless Charging Road Set to Revolutionize Mobility

Just as wireless charging is becoming the normal with mobiles, we could move to a world where ‘stopping to refuel’ just doesn’t happen. We recharge for the lowest cost at home overnight, particularly if we have solar power, and on the move on the highway on a road trip, all for lower cost than refuelling an ICE vehicle.

EV Charging Reference For Both Home & Road Trip Charging.

Introduction: Home/Urban Vs Road Trip Charging.

Fuel consumption data is divided into ‘urban cycle’, and ‘highway cycle’ because there are two different types of driving. With fossil fuel vehicles, the refuelling is not very different, but with EVs, the recharging is very different. When it comes to the practical side, the two separate sections here one ‘home’ and road trip’ charging are the most relevant, but background reference information is in this ‘combined’ section.

The Three Charging Levels.

Why 3 levels of charging?

It may feel like a new world where there is more than one way to refuel, but in practice, even with gasoline vehicles, refuelling on a long trip is different as it is often combined with a rest stop, perhaps with some food or fast food, and has a different feel than filling up during a normal week while commuting.

Refuelling an internal combustion engine vehicle is not necessarily convenient, but it is always fast.

Recharging an electric car, you should avoid ‘fast’ most of the time, as rapid recharging is more expensive, less convenient, and should only occur on road trips or in exceptional circumstances. The trap is, rapid recharge feels most like the familiar refuelling of an internal combustion engine, so it can feel like it should offer the familiar. However, for electric cars, recharging at home is more convenient than the familiar refuelling, and rapid charging is slower than the familiar refuelling. An EV that is only ever rapid recharged is a worse experience than an ICE vehicle, and when an EV owner recharges while sleeping the EV experience is an improved experience. The best EV experience requires using the most appropriate charging level for the occasion.

There are several articles on the charging levels already available, but such articles are often a little misleading, as they are often sponsored by people selling home chargers with a motive to upsell chargers.

It is important to consider that wireless charging is real, just becoming available, and will become more important over time. Wireless charging is perhaps a fourth level.

Level 1 Charging: Mains power and despite the myths, a great way to charge an EV.

Level 1 charging is charging a car using from a standard home mains power socket. For most people, this is all you need when charging at home. Level 1 charging will normally add around 4 to 5 miles per hour of range using USA/Canada/Mexico/Japan style 120v power, or 10 to 12 km per hour (6 to 8 miles per hour) in the rest of the world where mains power is 240v.

Home charging is not about road trips, as during a road trip you are not normally at home. Home charging is about ‘recharging while sleeping’ after a typical day driving, and for most people only needs to be able to add less than 100km or 60miles of range each night.

More detailed calculations as explained below reveal what the 5% of people who need more then 100km or 60 miles of range a level 1 charge will add at home, but unless you fill the tank of your gasoline car every day, you don’t need to fully charge your electric car overnight every day either. Level 1 charging is every day use, because unlike a gas station, you normally visit your home every day.

There is myth that charging standard mains socket is too slow. Yes, if you car has good range, it will take well over 12 hours to fully charge the battery this way, using level 1 charging, but you don’t need to fully charge your battery from discharged at home, there are rapid chargers for when you need that. Fully charging is normally only needed during road trips, and road trips don’t normally happen while you are at home. See this quote from ‘fully charged’.

For the occasional long-distance electric car journey, now I say occasional because most people don’t drive 350 miles in a day, regardless of how many times I get told that on twitter, statistically, it’s inaccurate. Its about 25-30 miles a day is the average car journey, not only in the UK but in every European country and North America. In North America that is the average and yet you could drive 3,000 miles across the United States, which people have done, and people do regularly, but not that often.

Robert Llewellyn from Fully Charged.

Level 1 charging usually adds up to 2.4kw in 240v countries, and up to 1.6kw in 110v countries.

Level 1 charging from a standard mains socket is the most useful charging option, for most people, most of the time.

Level 2: Faster charging while sleeping.

Level 2 charging is high speed AC mains power charging, and requires special high power home or commercial power sockets. In the US or 120v countries, such sockets may be available for laundry appliances, and in 240v countries, 3 phase power sockets may be needed for fastest charging.

While Level 1 charging can charge overnight after a ‘normal days’ driving, Level 2 charging provides for ‘charging while sleeping’, even when all battery capacity has been used during a single day and a full charge will again be required the next day. Level 2 charging is relevant when:

  • Stopping overnight at accommodation during a road trip.
  • A vehicle is often used for sequential days of all day driving, including:
    • Commercial vehicles such as taxis, couriers, or delivery vehicles.
  • It is only practical or convenient to charge at home every 3rd or 4th day.
  • There is a short window of time when electricity is least expensive.
  • Less efficient vehicles including large off-road vehicles.
  • Vehicles with a long and high speed daily commute, beyond level 1 overnight recharge level.

Level 2 car charging can be limited to 7kw, 12kw or sometimes as high as 22kW or even 40kW.

Level 2 chargers also have different capabilities, and how chargers are typically only 7kW in 100v countries, and up to 22kW in 240v three phase countries. For most charging home requirements, 7kW or even 3.7kW should be plenty.

This site quotes range distance added per hour as: 3.7kW= 20km, 7kW=40km and 22kW=120km, which should be indicative.

Level “3” / DC: Rapid Charge for road trips, and emulation of gasoline/petrol/diesel refuelling.

Though not officially called Level 3, the third level of charging is ‘DC rapid charging’, and is the system specifically designed for charging electric vehicles. While Level 1 and 2 are designed around sending the AC power that already exists in national electric grids through to a car, DC charging is all about the provision of electric power supply equipment designed for the needs of charging electric vehicles.

Rapid charging is needed when ‘charging while sleeping’ isn’t practical. Ideally, EVs would have sufficient range to deliver what ever is required even if driving all day, and thus always able to be charged after the day is over. Reality is, there will always be times when a way extending a vehicles range is required, although in future this may be through road based wireless charging.

The goal of rapid charging is the highest possible transfer of power possible into the vehicle, and this means the greatest stress on all electrical systems. Rapid charging should not be needed often, but when it is needed, you tend to want it as fast as possible.


Charging quickly requires high voltages and currents. Normally in homes there is high voltage AC with is suitable for charging EV batteries, but the DC power normally used is simply not powerful enough to help with charging an EV battery. This makes AC power the preferred power at home. The DC power used to charge EVs, is all about rapid charging using hundreds of volts, and this type of power is only available at high speed chargers. This DC is nothing like the lower voltage DC associated with batteries in flashlights at home! As a general guide:

  • AC: charging at home or lower speed charging, or charging small batteries such as those of PHEV.
  • DC: Newer, specialist rapid charging currently capable of delivering 350 kw.

Comparison: Gas/Diesel Range & Refuelling vs EV Range & Charging.

What the? Different Types of Refuelling/Recharging?

The only place you can refuel a petrol or diesel vehicle is a ‘gas station’ (or ‘petrol station’ for those outside the US). A specialist location for refuelling. Having made a trip to a gas station, financial constraints aside, you may as well fill the tank as it will make little difference as the visit will take almost the same time to fill the tank or half fill the tank, unless the vehicle is very large.

Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (ICE)Electric Vehicle (EV)
Road Trip Important SpecificationDistance Between RefuellingTime To Add Range at Fast Charger
Normal Use Important SpecificationDays Between RefuellingRanged Added Overnight
How To Refuel/RechargeSpecial Stop at gas stationNormally just park at home.
On Road trips at charging station.

A Surprisingly Very Different Experience.

Before concluding what range is needed to end range anxiety with EVs, it is worth considering the role refuelling plays the range we need.

Part of the reason our current vehicles need the range we are now expect, is that refuelling with gasoline or diesel, is not something we want to do every day. Most of us do not refuel until less the tank is less than half full.

In normal day to day living, the range of our vehicle determines how often we have to refuel. Refuelling takes time out of our day. There can be queues and we can do nothing else while we refuel. Fuel is also dangerous, and has fumes that are also dangerous, and this determines the character of the refuelling point, and why we are required to pay attention to what we are doing.

The National Fire Protection Association requires that they’re put up as a precaution. Phones do cause static electricity and just because it hasn’t happened yet, that doesn’t mean it never could. Their rules also state that you’re not allowed to use electronic materials at gas pumps, and cell phones fall into that category. The NFPA advises that you always follow all rules posted at gas stations and consult your phone’s owner manual for information on proper use.
The primary reason you shouldn’t use your phone at the pump (besides the fact that there are signs telling you not to) is that it’s a major distraction.

Why You Need to Stop Using Your Phone When Pumping Gas

Now consider electric refuelling. All that is required is a power point. Refuelling can be at the office, at home, or even at the supermarket. You don’t need to pay attention, and you won’t toxic chemicals on your hands or clothes. The worst way to refuel an electric vehicle, is to follow the old behaviour, and go to a location specifically to refuel and have nothing else to do while refuelling. Refuelling EVs can be no more inconvenient then using the right parking space, and is definitely best not done in the old way, as a special place just for refuelling.

This really impacts needed for those who can charge at home or the office. A change in thinking from “I refuel when the time comes” to “whenever I park here I ‘connect’ the car”. Then, every day their vehicle has the full range, in place of a potentially half empty tank, where the half already consumed has saved the driver the need to refuel during the past few days.

In normal use, a major role of the ‘range’ of a gasoline/petrol or diesel vehicle, is saving you from having to refuel everyday. That aspect of ‘range’ no longer applies to anyone with some form of permanent, or electrified parking space.

Australian Input To An Answer “Can I Charge In Remote Locations?”.

Consider the following:

  • Australia is the least densely populated country amongst populous countries, with 3 people per sq km2.
  • A higher percentage of Australians live in urban areas than with other large counties, making the non-urban areas even more sparely populated.
  • Australia has one of the lowest rates of EV adoption of any developed country. (2.4% compared to 4% for USA., 5.5% for NZ, 18.3% for France etc at the time of this update in 2022).

The combination of these factors means is the distances between charging infrastructure will be quite extreme, and that if a range is adequate for an EV in Australia, that range is going to workable in any country. But then, Alaska for example, at 1.3 per sq mile or 0.5 per km2, has a lower population density than the Australian average. So, take it further, take the “state” of Australia, (or technically “territory) of the Northern Territory, with a population density of 0.16 people per sq km2, and at the time of this report, and only 61 registered EVs in total, being only 0.03% of vehicles.

Even in the Northern Territory, the report is that a P100 Tesla Model X, normally charged only to 90%, has fully adequate range for driving without problems in the Northern Territory.

Peace of mind for Mr Smith and his family comes from knowing that his vehicle charges overnight at his home, “just like a mobile phone”, powered from solar power collected during the day, and that — when he leaves in the morning for work or to drop off the children at sport — his car is ready to go.

ABC, Dec 2021: Sales of electric vehicles expected to surge in the NT in 2022

“I often hear people say that you can’t drive an electric vehicle in the NT, and I use that opportunity to let them know that it’s pretty easy actually … I let them know some of the things that I’ve done,” says Mr Smith, who is from Darwin.

Driving the Tesla, Mr Smith circumnavigated Australia over 18 days, often exceeding 1,000 km in a single day.

“I did Port Augusta to Melbourne in a day, well over 1,000 km, and Sydney to Brisbane in a day,” he says.

Mr Smith has also travelled extensively in the Northern Territory, including doing the Alice Springs-to-Darwin drive many times.

“It would be right to say that better and faster infrastructure along the Stuart Highway would make the journey easier, but there are many more electrical outlets in Australia than petrol stations, so in terms of being able to charge your vehicle there’s no problem,” he says.

ABC, Dec 2021: Sales of electric vehicles expected to surge in the NT in 2022

What is not revealed is how many minutes per 1,000 kms are required for the recharging, but the implication is that charging is not always fast, but can be found almost anywhere.

USA Specific Data: Voltage, Plugs and Batteries.

A large percentage of information on EVs originates from the USA, which had 3 differences to the rest of the world:

  • 100v-120v electrical supply, North America, Japan and US territories.
  • Tesla vehicles use proprietary plugs, as opposed to standard plugs used in Europe, Asia, Oceania.
  • All vehicles, including Tesla, so far use ternary batteries with more limited charging curves, whist outside of the USA, Teslas can already be using LFP batteries.

Batteries Charing Profiles: LFP vs Ternary.

Batteries In Use.

Currently there are three types of batteries in use in EVs, LFP and two types of “ternary” battery, NCA and NMC.

As of early 2022, all EVs by traditional car brands use ternary batteries, as do all Teslas in the USA, and longer range Teslas elsewhere. Within China, LFP batteries are around 50% of all batteries as of early 2022, but outside China, LFP is only in some Tesla models and all exported BYD vehicles.

Characteristics: Ternary Batteries Vs LFP.

These NCA and NMC batteries have so far given a higher capacity for the same weigh and volume, but come with a number of drawbacks, and in comparison to LFP batteries ternary batteries:

  • Present a far greater fire risk.
  • Have a shorter lifespan, around 1/2 of LFP batteries.
  • Require more careful charging, with charge above around 80% being undertaken at much slower charging rates, and above 90% to be used only one road trips on occasions wher maximum range is required.

Caring For Ternary Batteries.

Advice on battery care varies from car to car, as difference cars implement different strategies to help manage ternary batteries. Some report a battery capacity, and a separate, lower, “usable capacity” that prevents using all or some of the battery capacity that would require cautious slower charging and less frequent use.

Generally if the manufacturer provides as time for charging from, say 10% to 80%, then that is the range where the battery can if conditions are correct accept full fast charging, and outside this range, charing should be slower.

CCS Charging: What charging speed can I really get?

There are Tesla superchargers which follow their own standard, although outside North America and China they also use the CCS system, but for most of the world charging is all about CCS.

The original CCS standard provided for 500 volts and 100 amps. Power = volts x amps, so this provided for a maximum of 50,000 Watts, or 50kW. However, if your car runs on a lower voltage, and most are around 400 volts, there is still only 100 amps available. On a 400v car, this will mean 40kW maximum. So do not assume the rating of the charge station is what you will get, and there are many 50 kW charge stations in the field.

The next standard, CCS 2.0, not to be confused with CCS type 2 plugs, increased the maximum charge to 150 kW (I think but need to confirm as 500v 300a), and

The latest to 350 kW standard provides for 350 amps at up to 1,000 volts. So on an 350kW charge station, an 800v vehicle could charge at 280 kW and and a 400v vehicles at 140 kW.

‘Home’ Recharging: Charge for ‘Local’/’Urban’ Transport.

Home Charging Replaces Periodic Refuelling.

With an ICE vehicle, around once or week or so for most people, a stop off for a refuel is required. These refuel stops are more mundane that the refuel stops on a road trip, and almost never involve a bathroom break or a meal. Some people sometimes grab a quick snack or emergency groceries. It is most common to fill the tank, but it the price is wrong, for other reasons, it is not universal to completely fill up.

The EV equivalent is charging at home overnight, or for some people, charging at work during the day. This is recharging using the long windows of time most cars spend parked, and provides optimum charging without the driver waiting while the car charges.

In normal use outside of road trips, most private cars spend most time parked, so there there is lots of time available for charging.

Home Charging Typically Only Needs To Add 60 km or 37 miles Of Range Per Day.

The average motorist travels 13,500 miles or 22,000km which, divided by 365 gives an average of 37 miles or 60 km per day. So if you started with a full charge, on average if you can add 37 miles or 60 km range by charging at home, then you would never need to charge elsewhere, other than on days you are travelling further than the full range, which for a car with 250 miles or 400km, typically will mean a day with around 4 or more hours just driving.

For most electric car owners, “charging while sleeping” is so normal, that there may be months and months between visits to a specialist charging station. Unlike visits to a specialist charging station where the driver may have little else to do while it charging just as when refuelling in ICE vehicle, recharge at home is plug in when you get home, and unplug next morning or before leaving. It doesn’t matter how long it takes. In fact, with wireless home charging, there are already some cars where you do not have to do anything, and charging just happens while your are parked.

Who Needs A Home Charger?

You can buy home charging stations for most electric vehicles, even though in practice, for most situations, charging from a regular electric socket should be all you would even need at home, particularly outside of Japan or North America as in most countries the regular voltage is 240v. Almost 2021 models EVs have a range of at least 350km of urban range, which means only needing a full charge overnight at home on occasions you need to drive around 300km on each of two consecutive days. That is, arrive home having used the full range one day, and need a full recharge to again be able to have full range the next day. Given that average of 60km per day most of us drive, two consecutive days of driving 300km are rare, and two consecutive days with that number hours driving almost always involves staying somewhere other than home at least one night, and needing to charge at a charging station anyway. When on a road trip you typically do need fast charging, but a fast charger back home will not help.

The main benefit from a fast home charger that is allows only every bothering to plug in every 3rd or 4th day, or in many cases, perhaps once per week instead of every night. Why not charge a little every night? Perhaps the ‘home’ in question a second home, or there is one place for charging shared between several cars?

It could be that for some people, it is too hard to change a mindset that ‘refuelling’ is best left until ‘the tank is getting empty’, so to plugin in every time they are home, even if the battery is quite full, means breaking a pattern established over years and years.

While the provision for fast charging is essential to electric vehicles on road trips, it is not critical for charging at home.

Home Charing Times Without A Home Charger via the “granny cable”.

The cable for charging from a regular mains socket is sometimes called the ‘granny cable’, particularly by car reviewers, who like travelling salesmen, rarely get the opportunity to charge at home.

Some stats, note that US, Canada/Mexico and Japan and have 120v power at home, while almost all other countries have 220-240v. Confusingly, US/Canada/Japan can also have 240v charging, but as this is from ‘3-phase’ and not from a regular power socket, there is usually more current available than from a regular socket in 220/240v countries. When 220-240v is listed below, it is regular home 220-240v as in UK, Europe, Asia, China, Australasia, Africa, not 3 phase power in the US etc.

Charging at home data (12 hours ‘overnight’ figures where possible)

I may add more examples to this table over time.

Road Trip Refuel/ Recharging:

The In Reality Infrequent, But Overhyped, Rapid Charge.

Rapid Charging Is Not Normal Charging: Don’t do it often.

Don’t rapid charge often! There is a reason I moved this section below home charging.

If you are using rapid charging on days when you will sleep at home that night, you are probably doing something wrong. For most people, over 95% of EV charging is home charging, and rapid charging is for road trips. Plus, special temporary, deals aside, it is around 4x more expensive.

How often do you go on a ‘road trip’? A ‘road trip’ means either, at least one entire day mostly spent driving, or one or more nights away from home. For most of us, these do not happen that often, but the capacity of a car to do a road trip is very important to us. Like the top speed specification of a Ferrari that doesn’t actually get driven fast often, knowing you can do it if you want is important.

For most people, fast charging is only every used on road trips, but it does matter, and it is a sensitive issue, because historically charging has been really slow, and it is still not perfect.

So how fast an EV can be charged from almost empty is a specification that gets a lot of attention, but if you end up doing it often, something is wrong.

Generally, for most batteries, rapid charging shortens battery life. While you may rapid charging your phone, the battery is less valuable and cars typically remain in use longer than phones.

Do not believe the number specification: Calculating real charge rates.

Specifications don’t reveal real charging times.

There are two really useful, practical numbers, and they are not usually on the specifications. To compare cars, you need these numbers, or the very least the second number:

Real charge rates:

  • Average kW charge rate = (full battery charge x fraction charged) ÷ time in hours.
  • Distance added per hour = Average kW charge rate x (range ÷ full battery charge).

Cars often have a maximum rapid charge rate, expressed in kW. This number is not very useful, as in practice, it is like a guarantee the car will never charge faster than that number. If comparing two cars, the car with the lower number may actually charge faster.

Most cars also a rating specifying something like “charges from 20% to 80% in 30 minutes”, “20” in this example is the starting point level of charge, and the “80” is the end point. Still not a really useful number itself, but it does give key numbers allow calculating the useful numbers.

For the formulas above, subtracting the smaller percentage from the high number gives the “% charged”, which in this example is 80-20 = 60% charged, or 60/100 charged = 0.6 charged. The battery is 0.6 charged in 30 minutes. 30 minutes = 0.5 hours, so 1.2 charged in 1 hour. If we have a 60 kWh battery, this would mean:

  • average kW charge rate = 80 kWh x (0.80-0.20) ÷ 0.5 h = 60 x 0.6 ÷ 0.5 h = 96 kW.

Now assume the car range is 400km.

distanced added per hour = 96 kW x (400 km ÷ 80kWh) = 96 x 5 = 480 km added per hour

So charging for 1/2 hour will give 240 km of range. Note that this still only applies while within that 20-80% band, and will be slower if outside that band.

If you have Tesla that does not reveal full battery charge, then you will be uncertain of average kW charge rate, however you can still calculate range added per hour. Just guess the battery capacity in kWh, and it cancels out in the 2nd formula, so only the average kW charge rate will reflect how bad your guess was.

Road Trip Recharging/Refuelling: It is naturally different.

We may not give it much thought, but even with an ICE vehicle, road trip refuelling is usually different than filling up when not on a trip. Travel is most often with a group or the family, and the stop may also be a bathroom stop, and a meal break. There is usually a different feel then fitting in the periodic refill into local trips. With an EV, that difference increases, because this is normally the only time you use a fast charger.

When refuelling an ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicle on a road trip, it is normal to fully fill the tank. Why not fill the tank? It has little impact on the time taken, and it gives more range before the next refuel is needed. We don’t think much about how long it takes to fill the tank with fuel, because unless we drive a huge truck, time difference between fill and partial fill makes little difference. The visit requires turning off the highway, getting to the pump if there is a queue, and the paying can step can take as long or even longer than the filling time. The filling time is just part of the overall stop, and how long the filling takes is not normally that significant. takes to fill the tank.

When recharging an EV (electric vehicle) on a road trip, there are reasons why it is not always best to ‘fill the tank’:

  • For some EVs, charging that last few percent is slower, and not worth the extra wait, so it can be best and most time efficient to recharge only to 80 or 90%, depending on the vehicle.
  • Recharging can generate heat in the battery, and the longer the recharge, the more heat, so more frequent partial recharges can a avoid a car reducing recharging speed to avoid excess heat.
  • Available rechargers may be slow, making a ‘top up’ and then travelling to a faster charger the best solution.
EV charging station within outdoor parking area.

Paying for recharging differs from traditional payment for refuelling. Chargers are all pay at the pump and there is normally no associated cashier. While with traditional refuelling there is normally a staff member somewhere, most often there is no human involved at all with recharging. Modern chargers can communicate with the car, so connecting the charger connects communication with the charging network operator. If there is already an account with the correct options selected, the cost of charging cam be charged to the account of the car owner automatically. Otherwise, paying is often through an ‘app’ on a mobile phone, and there can be lower prices on charging networks if the car owner is a subscriber. It can make sense to become a subscriber for the duration of a road trip. Electricity from the charging network operator can be more expensive than directly from the electricity company as may be the case at home, although charging networks can offer special deals that become bundled with a car purchase.

With an EV, in 2021, a recharge stop should require no more than 20 minutes with newer vehicles, but could take 40 minutes with some models. How long should be allocated for a given recharge can also depend on what there is to do while recharging. Is it time for breakfast, lunch or diner? If you were going to be stopped anyway, even a slower recharger can be time efficient.

If a road trip stops will include trying to feel refreshed and perhaps involves a meal and bathroom stops, then there may be no time penalty as these things can happen during charging, unlike with an ICE refuelling. However, if in a hurry, todays EVs can extend how long your road trip stops can take.

The Achilles Heel: Road Trip Recharge Ratio.

What Is Recharge Time Ratio?

For every one minute of rapid charging, an EV should provide a number of minutes of driving at highway speed. I call the number of minutes the ‘recharge ratio’.

So, with a recharge ratio of 6, 10 minutes charging should give one hour of driving, and 20 minutes recharging should give 2 hours of driving.

The Missing EV spec: Driving Time/Recharge Time Ratio.

The lack of a specification like this makes it hard to compare different EVs. Consider, specifications typically gives as “charges from 10% to 80% in XX minutes”.

Driving at any constant speed requires a number of kilowatts every hour, and recharging can replace a number of kilowatts ever hour. If the rations between these number is 4, then four hours driving would require 1 hour of charging. Double the battery size will double both numbers, but would not change the ratio of driving time to charging time.

What will change the ratio, is speed. The faster you drive, the lower the ratio, so you will gain less time from driving faster in an EV. Just as engine power can be a curved graph, so would the Driving Time/Recharge Time ratio. However, if the national speed limit is 110 km/h (68.35 mph) as in Norway, then the ration at this speed would be most important to you. In France or Germany, the ratio at 130 km/h (80.8 mph) might be more important, and what is most important will change will local conditions.

Real World Driving Time/Recharge Time Ratios at 110 km/h: from Bjørn Nyland.

Bjørn Nyland 1,000 Challenge.

EV vlogger Bjørn Nyland tests car using his 1,000 challenge in Norway. His reference time for the challenge ‘using a fossil refence car‘ is 9 hours 25 minutes (9:25) at an average of 106.2 km/h. While in theory if remaining exactly at the speed limit and without stopping at all, the journey could have been 9 hours and just over 5 minutes, this is not the real world, and 20 minutes lost between one refuelling stops and traffic delay when driving 1,000 km is very efficient.

Comparing a selection of cars from Bjørn’s data using their excess time over the reference and being recharge time to calculate the ratio at 100 km/h reveals:

  • 18.8 – 2021 Telsla Model 3: 18.8
  • 16.1 – Hyundai Ioniq 5
  • 10.3 – Audi e-tron 55, Mercedes EQA, Tesla Model X
  • 9.4 – Ford Mustang Mach-E LR RWD
  • 8.7 – BMW iX3
  • 8.1 – VW ID4 82 kWh
  • 6.3 – Tesla Model S P85
  • 5.9 – Mercedes EQC 400
  • 4.5 – Ford Mustang Mach-E LR AWD
  • 3.8 – Audi e-tron 50

As you can see, older cars perform much worse, and newer cars such as the Lucid Air, or XPeng models using 480 kw charging, should perform even better than any on this list so far.

Data For Driving Time/Recharge Time Ratios at 90 km/h and 130 km/h: Battery Life.

The you tube channel ‘battery life’ does full range tests in Germany at both 90 km/h and 130 km/h. These videos are interesting and and give insights into other factors affecting range, however tests focus on driving cars from full charge until range is fully used and then charging until the battery is completely charged. This is useful data, but differs a little from what you would get in the real world, as you will charge when convenient and you want to stop, and will get best results with most cars if you don’t wait for an absolutely full charge as opposed to 80% or 90%, unless want to be stopped for long enough for a full charge for other reasons.

People Need Recharging Too: Human Recharge Ratios.

When on a road trip, it is recommended, that the driver rests every 2 hours for around 15 minutes. Some people ignore these recommendations, and other instead use multiple drivers, but until there is genuine level 4 or level 5 self driving cars, it is recommended to take the breaks even if swapping drivers.

Fifteen minutes every hour would be a ration of 4 to 1, fifteen minutes every 2 hours is a ratio of 8 to 1. This means for any vehicle with a recharge ratio above 8 to 1, the car in theory requires less recharge time than the driver.

In practice, not every ideal stop for humans would have the ideal car charging equipment. There are road trips where the it is the journey and not the destination, and these trips normally have more generous windows for charging, but when it is all about the destination, the ideal EV would have a ratio of 16 or better, and currently there are only two entries on the list that comply. Fortunately, at least half of the mainstream EVs being released in the next year would be capable of 16, and things will only get better after that.

Meantime, look carefully at the recharge ratio when considering an EV that will do lots of road trips.

The Fine Print: Be Aware Factors Affecting Real World Recharge Ratios.

Its Cruising Speed, Not Average Speed, That Is Important For Efficiency.

There are many reports online of peoples real word experiences, but caution is needed when inferring what your experience will be. I have seen calculations where people make comments such as:

  • ‘The average speed was only 90 km/h, not 110 km/h, so the real consumption would be higher’.
  • or ‘we were delayed by road works, so it was necessary to drive faster to make up time’.

The logic here is a trap. Consider three trips:

  1. A person drives for 1 hour at 110 km/h.
    • Average speed 110 km/h.
  2. A person drives for 30 minutes at 110 km/h, waits 15 minutes for roadworks, then resumes 110 km/h for 30 mins.
    • Average speed 88 km/h.
  3. A person drives for 45 minutes at 130 km/h, then 15 minutes at 50 km/h.
    • Average speed 110 km/h

Number 1 is obviously all travelling at 110 km/h. But number 2 is also all travelling at 110 km/h. The 15 minutes stopped lowered the average speed for the day, but had no impact more impact on the average speed the car travelled at when it was being driven, then if the person in number 1 was asked to wait at the finish for 15 minutes before calculating the average. For number 3, the car travelled 97.5 kilometres at 130 km/h, which is 90% of the distance. The 15 minutes of driving slower will not suddenly recover fuel used when driving faster.

Many Other Factors Effect Efficiency.

Internal combustion engines are less efficient at best, and are rarely at best, which results them being around 5x less energy efficient than electric vehicles in typical driving. This means everything else that effects efficiency becomes more noticeable in an EV. For this reason electric vehicles use the more efficient heat pumps in place of traditional air conditioners, as every thing that uses energy matters more.

The result is all of the following factors impact efficiency, and thus recharge ratio:

  • Availability of Optimum Charging.
    • Vehicles such as the Ioniq 5 could perform better in Bjørn’s test once faster chargers are available.
  • Wheel size, with smaller wheels and taller tyres usually more efficient.
    • 19″ wheels usually give longer range than 20″ or 21″
  • Road conditions such are rain or snow.
    • In heavy rain, consumption will increase.
  • Temperature Extremes.
    • Batteries operate best within a temperature range, and it can take energy to keep them within this range.

Home Charging.

Problem: No Home Charging? Upgrades, Street Chargers, Or Solar A Solution?

Many People Have No ‘Home’ Charging: Only On Street Parking, Or No Power Socket.

Statistics on what percentage of people have parking with access to a mains socket, will vary not just from country to country, from locality to locality, and even within a town or city, area within that town or city. I found specifications for the UK that state that 25% of all vehicles in Britain are parked on the street when at home. However, even some vehicles with off-street parking, do not have access to electricity in their allocated space. For example, for apartment complexes, providing mains electric car power in each allocated space or garage, would require the addiction of significant extra infrastructure to facilitate measuring the power usage at each allocated space, which is most often not currently in place.

Some homes have little or no off street spaces, and some families have more cars than spaces.

This division between those with access to a power socket for home charging, and those without, could be the great divide of the electric vehicle experience. This is not a question of access to rapid charging at home, as most people, particularly in built up areas, can achieve most of the charging they need from a regular mains socket. Even for those this is not a perfect solution, a combination of mains socket charging with occasional use of rapid charging is far far better than no home charging at all.

Right Now, Think Twice Before Buying If You Can’t Charge At Home.

There are so many great home charging options, and even standard wall socket will satisfy most needs, and matching that experience for the as many as around 50% of all people without access to a power point where parked when at home is a real challenge. Some will have suitable charging at work, but otherwise, at this time, for these people owning an EV is going to be far from the experience it should be. The best experience requires charging from home. Without charging at home:

  • Electricity costs more as recharging stations are resellers of electricity, increasing car running costs.
  • There is the added inconvenience of needing to find time to go to recharging stations.
  • Battery life with most batteries is reduced by rapid charges and the deeper cycles that go with rapid charging.

For a move to electric cars across society, this problem requires serious attention. Society has had 100 years to adopt and evolve around fossil fuel cars, some evolution is now required around electric vehicles. This is the key evolution required.

There are shopping centres with charging spaces for EVs, and some people can charge at their place of work, but these are not universal solutions, and while the lure of often free charging is a lure for customers right now, it is hard to see this as part of wide scale solution.

However, there are solutions coming. The two main reasons for not being able to charge at home are:

  1. Home parking is in an underground carpark, without available power for charging, as often is the case with apartments.
  2. On street parking is the only available parking at home.
The older solution.

Problem number 1 should be resolved as more people have the need and as upgrading underground parking is practical once enough people need it. The biggest problem here is that charging networks trying to offer

Charging Solutions For On Street Parking.

But for problem number 2, on street parking, solutions are more complex. There are many proposals, such as such as the one in the video to the right, with posts that can be housed at the street side, as well as other solutions that convert street lamps into charging posts.

And the new.

While there are proposals for on street parking with power, who funds such infrastructure is complex issue, and normally assumes those charging on street will be paying a premium for electricity compared to those charging at home in order to fund the scheme operator.

‘Electrifying’ the street can work in densely populated areas, particularly with wireless charging, but there is a risk that the electricity will come at a premium to help fund the infrastructure. Even when paying a premium for electricity, EVs are still less expensive to operate than ICE vehicles, but it would be better if everyone had price parity. Society regards electricity to the home as an essential service, and with EVs, electricity to the car parking location may need similar consideration.

There is a social question to be answered.

Solar: A solution For Cars Parked Outside?

Solar EVs.

Unlike the solar challenge races, a regular car cannot travel 1,000km (600 miles) on the solar energy collected in just one day, but adding up to 60km of range for each day is possible, and given the average distance driven per by vehicles, then that may just be enough to keep the battery sufficiently charged most of the time for most people.

There are soon to be released cars:

Tesla even has solar charging plans for their Cybertruck. It is all very promising, and all are taking orders, but Tesla has nothing is in mass productions at time of writing.

More articles on solar vehicles:

Solar Car Covers & Blankets and Accessories.

Rather than having solar panel built into the car, another option is to have either a car cover with solar cells built in, or a “blanket” of solar cells which can be laid out on the ground.

The blanket of solar cells is potential solution for travel to remote locations, or those with a private place for parking that has no access to power.

The solar car cover is a potential solution for people who park on the street, with limited distances travelled during their normal week. The current 105 km week of range quoted in the article above does equate to only just over 5,000 km (3,100 miles) per year, but this is excluding road trips, when rapid chargers would be required anyway. The company hopes to triple the range per day, which would then be sufficient for the “urban” part to their life for most vehicles, but even at the current power generation level it would be a solution for many people.

The Tesla Cybertruck will have a solar “bed” option that will add 15 miles (24 km) per day according to Elon Musk.

Off Grid Solar Vehicles.

Another type of charging is charging when parked at a remote location. This is most relevant for vehicles that may spend long period of time at a remote location such as campers.

A proof of concept vehicle has already been able to gain 130km (80 miles) of range per day. All of this additional range is completely without cost of carbon footprint.

There are also a umber of camping conversions and camping trailers that propose using solar power for not just camping, but also to charge the vehicle.

To Be Added:

Recharging Summary and Conclusion.

There are a few key takeaways on the situation right now, in late 2021:

  • Recharging on road trips is a step backwards from with ICE Vehicles, although in most cases, in practice, it can depend of if you also recharge the humans when you stop.
  • When not on a road trip, for those with access to home charging, recharging is a significant step forward from the refuelling experience with ICE vehicles.
  • Without home or office recharging, EV recharging is problematic and a step backward from the experience refuelling ICE vehicles.

The biggest problem is that of finding solutions for those who cannot charge at home, and what range people who cannot charge at home need varies too much with other factors for one general answer to be enough, but there is a whole page here discussing the factors at play.